Gadolinium (Gd) Introduction
Gadolinium possesses unique properties that make it useful in various applications. It has atomic number 64 and density 7.90 g/cm3. Furthermore, gadolinium and its compounds exhibit strong paramagnetism. As a result, they can serve as useful contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.
In addition, the magnetic properties of metallic gadolinium enable its application in technologies like magnetic refrigeration. For instance, it can be used to manufacture high-efficiency refrigerators based on the magnetocaloric effect. Similarly, scientists sometimes fabricate metallic gadolinium into flat discs as sputtering targets.
Scientists notably apply these Gd thin films in microelectronics to take advantage of gadolinium’s electromagnetic characteristics. The Gd targets actively create the thin films during physical vapor deposition. Researchers specifically utilize the films in microdevices to benefit from gadolinium’s magnetic and electric properties. Applying the thin films enables harnessing gadolinium’s electromagnetic attributes in microelectronics applications.Moreover, gadolinium finds roles comparable to terbium and holmium in optical data storage. Conversely though, optical recording adopts light rather than magnetism. In summary, researchers highly value gadolinium for its diverse magnetic, optical and medical applications spanning refrigeration, microelectronics and more.
About Our Gadolinium Sputtering Target
QS Advanced Materials Inc. operates multiple Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) furnaces enabling us to produce gadolinium sputtering targets ranging in size from 1 inch in diameter up to over 10 inches. Our typical gadolinium targets achieve a purity level of over 99.5% as rare earth metals can contain low levels of impurities such as oxygen. However, our raw material suppliers further refine the rare earth metal purity to over 99.9%.
For many years, QSAM has supplied countless rare earth sputtering targets and specialty ceramics to laboratories and advanced technology companies across the United States. We serve as a good fellow for customers’ research needs. We take pride in manufacturing gadolinium sputtering targets to support the innovation of America’s science and engineering community. Our targets provide a critical resource to help drive technological progress.
Sputtering uses a physical vapor deposition technique. It involves bombarding a target material with high-energy ions. This causes atoms and molecules to eject and deposit onto a substrate. Gadolinium targets are commonly used for direct current (DC) sputtering. As conductive materials, they permit DC sputtering deposition of thin films.
Sputtering gadolinium enables producing thin films of pure gadolinium or its compounds. Furthermore, gadolinium thin films have found remarkable applications in different fields.
For example, sputtered gadolinium films demonstrate properties like the Faraday effect. Therefore, they prove invaluable in areas such as data storage, optical isolators, and sensors. Next, gadolinium compounds deposited via sputtering aid developing high-temperature superconducting thin films. In turn, these films offer promise for efficient applications.
Additionally, gadolinium films play a key role in spintronics. They allow manipulating and detecting electron spins. As a result, applications include sensors and hard disk drives. Lastly, sputtered gadolinium oxide films enhance optics because of their high refractive index. Applied as coatings, they better lenses and mirrors across spectra.
In closing, gadolinium oxide films made via sputtering exhibit high gas sensitivity. Consequently, they are ideal for detectors and environmental monitoring systems.
Gadolinium’s physical properties
|1.29 × 10^6 S/m
|Ferromagnetic at low temperatures